NIH To assess depressive symptoms, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was used, which is the most commonly used epidemiologic survey tool for all ages . Writing – review & editing. USA.gov. The authors acknowledge the members of the Yangcheon-gu mental health and welfare center. The mean GARS score among the depressed single mothers was significantly higher than that among their non-depressed counterparts (40.1 vs. 29.5, p < 0.001). On the other hand, for the control group stress was an independent depression risk factor (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.24, p < 0.001) (Table 5). Supervision, Epub 2007 Jan 3.  reported that single-parent families are more likely to suffer from depression than two-parent families, and that single-parent families have an elevated level of chronic stress, experience weak social support, and have infrequent contact with friends and families. Brown and Morgan (1997) examined marital status, poverty and depression in female parents over a 2-year period and found that single parents were twice as likely as their married counterparts to be in financial hardship (Brown and Moran 1997), despite being twice as likely to be in full-time employment. For the single and married mothers alike, stress level was higher among the depressed individuals, which is consistent with previous study findings. Single and married mothers were followed up over a 2-year period during which time rates of psychosocial risk factors, onset of depression and experience of chronic episodes were measured. Housing types in Korea consist of ownership, Jeonse, monthly rental housing, and public rental housing. Missing the kids when they're with their other parent. Gausman J, Austin SB, Subramanian SV, Langer A. PLoS One. Although not a clinical diagnostic tool for depression, the CES-D effectively reflects the severity of depressive symptoms in community studies, and the tool’s reliability and validity have been proven by Cho and Kim . Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. Methodology, The response rate was 59%, reflecting the participation of a total of 291 single-parent households. Despite these limitations, the current study’s contribution lies in having analyzed the risk factors of depression (the most common psychological difficulty among single mothers) through a comparison involving a control group consisting of married mothers of two-parent households. | A univariate logistic regression performed to analyze depression risk factors found the following. The 1999 poverty rate of 51.8% for single mothers was almost threefold higher than that for single fathers (18%); and fivefold higher than the rate (10.4%) for couples Finally, at 59%, the majority of households headed by single mothers lived in Jeonse rental housing (security deposit), while a mere 11.8% were home-owners; meanwhile, in the control group, 67.5% were homeowners while 29.1% lived in Jeonse rental housing. Furthermore, of the respondents to the former survey, the majority of single mothers reported poor subjective health status and experience of depression . According to the 2015 Single Parent Household Survey, single parents under the age of 30 years have a greater need for support in the areas of living costs/child-rearing costs, childcare services, and parenting education/counselling than single parents in their 40s or older; meanwhile, these former individuals also have a relatively lower need for support in the areas of housing, jobs/employment, and legal support, indicating that the need for child-rearing support is predominant among younger single parents . The 2015 Single Parent Household Survey found that 20.2% of single parents experience depressive symptoms, with 54% coping with the symptoms on their own and a mere 5.7% seeking professional help . Meanwhile, for group comparisons that included categorical variables, chi-square tests were performed. In fact, the 2015 survey found that, at 65.7%, a significant share of the single parents surveyed cited “cash assistance for basic needs and child-rearing” as the most urgent need, and this was followed by those who cited “housing support such as facilities and public rental housing” (13.5%), “healthcare assistance for parents and children” (5.7%), and “childcare support services” (5.5%). Furthermore, as the single parent family structure forces such parents to seek employment outside the home, single mothers are more likely to experience increased economic hardship and parenting stress , which also leads to an increased risk of employment and housing insecurity. Results are discussed in terms of an aetiological model of onset in which financial hardship probably influences outcome at a wide variety of points. This shows that single mothers typically have poorer mental and physical health relative to the general population or married mothers, and it has been suggested that the risk factors that contribute to their compromised physical and mental well-being include economic hardship and weak social support [4,14,15]. A new Child Trends’ study found that more than half of a group of low-income mothers in Maryland felt down, depressed, or hopeless in the past year and almost a third … Education level and occupation are linked to economic status, which can influence depressive symptoms. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203004.t001. Focusing on the single mothers, a higher alcohol use score was found among the depressed than the non-depressed. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203004.t004. Practical services concerning economic stability and parenting support should be provided for single mothers to reduce depression among this demographic. The items consist of assessments of pressure related to work/job/school, interpersonal relationships, changes in relationships, sickness/injury, financial matters, unusual happenings, changes/no change in routine, and overall stress perception. The limitations of the current study include the following. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. The prevalence of depression differed notably between the single mothers and the control group, at 33% and 8%, respectively. Risk of onset was double among single mothers. Formal analysis, Dr. Angelica Ponguta recommends the empowerment of local government, as the most important factor in recognizing, preventing and solving family- and child-centered challenges, including single mother homelessness. Monthly rental housing is a system of paying monthly rent to the landlord. Finally, the mean AUDIT-K score for the single mothers was also significantly higher than that for the married mothers in the control group (7.1 vs. 5.8, p = 0.023) (Table 1). To identify the independent depression risk factors, multivariate logistic regression was performed using as covariates the variables that were correlated in the univariate logistic regression. When depression risk factors in each group were controlled for, living in public rental housing was determined to be an independent depression risk factor among the single mothers, and stress was found to be an independent depression risk factor among the married mothers. At 59%, the survey response rate among single-parent households was low, which may have introduced a selection bias. We used the Korean version of this instrument by Lee et al. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Soc Sci Med. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228435. Living with a mental illness can result in compromised functioning, just like living with cancer or diabetes can. The AUDIT-K cut-off score indicating alcohol use disorder in Korean women was 12 points. Single mothers were twice as likely as their married counterparts to be in financial hardship, despite being twice as likely to be in full-time employment. Research, clinical, and policy implications of these findings are discussed. She found that maternal depression is associated with a range of negative parenting behavior and a decrease in maternal warmth. Based on the AUDIT-K cut-off point, 38.5% of the depressed single mothers had suspected alcohol use disorders compared with 28.6% of the depressed married mothers. After a brief introduction of the survey purpose and an explanation concerning the correct means of completing the questionnaire, written consent was collected and the self-report questionnaire was distributed. 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